Richardson, A.D. 2018. Tracking seasonal rhythms of plants in diverse ecosystems with digital camera imagery. New Phytologist, in press. DOI: 10.1111/nph.15591

Luo, Y., T. El-Madany, G. Filippa, X. Ma, B. Ahrens, A. Carrara, R. Gonzalez-Cascon, E. Cremonese, M. Galvagno, T.W. Hammer, J. Pachecho-Labrador. M.P. Martín, G. Moreno, O. Perez-Priego, M. Reichstein, A.D. Richardson, C. Römermann, and M. Migliavaca. 2018. Using near-infrared enabled digital repeat photography to track structural and physiological phenology in Mediterranean tree-grass ecosystems. Remote Sensing, 10: 1293. DOI: 10.3390/rs10081293

Hemming, D.L., R. Abernethy, C. Armitage, K. Bolmgren, R. Myneni, T. Park, A.D. Richardson, T. Rutishäuser, T.H. Sparks, and S.J. Thackeray. 2018. Sidebar 2.3. Phenology of terrestrial and freshwater primary producers [in “State of the Climate in 2017”]. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 99, S63-S66. DOI: 10.1175/2018BAMSStateoftheClimate.1

Richardson, A.D., K. Hufkens, T. Milliman, D.M. Aubrecht, M.E. Furze, B. Seyednasrollah, M.B. Krassovski, J.M. Latimer, W.R. Nettles, R.R. Heiderman, J.M. Warren and P.J. Hanson. 2018. Ecosystem warming extends vegetation activity but heightens vulnerability to cold temperatures. Nature, 560: 368-371. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-018-0399-1

Klosterman, S., K. Hufkens and A.D. Richardson. 2018. Later springs green-up faster: the relation between onset and completion of green-up in deciduous forests of North America. International Journal of Biometeorology, 62: 1645-1655. DOI: 10.1007/s00484-018-1564-9

Richardson, A.D., K. Hufkens, T. Milliman and S. Frolking. 2018. Intercomparison of phenological transition dates derived from the PhenoCam Dataset V1.0 and MODIS satellite remote sensing. Scientific Reports, 8: 5679. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-23804-6

Zhang, X., S. Jayavelu, M.A. Friedl, J. Gray, G.M. Henebry, Y. Liu, C.B. Schaaf, A.D. Richardson and L. Liu. 2018. Evaluation of land surface phenology from VIIRS data using time series of PhenoCam imagery. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 256-257: 137-149. DOI: /10.1016/j.agrformet.2018.03.003

Stephens, J., T.A. Black, R. Jassal, Z. Nesic, N.J. Grant, A.G. Barr, W. Helgason, A.D. Richardson, M.S. Johnson, A. Christen. 2018. Effects of forest tent caterpillar defoliation on carbon and water fluxes in a boreal aspen stand. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 253-254: 176-189, DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2018.01.035

Richardson, A.D., K. Hufkens, T. Milliman, D.M. Aubrecht, M. Chen, J.M. Gray, M.R. Johnston, T.F. Keenan, S.T. Klosterman, M. Kosmala, E.K. Melaas, M.A. Friedl, and S. Frolking. Tracking vegetation phenology across diverse North American biomes using PhenoCam imagery. Scientific Data, 5: 180028. DOI: 10.1038/sdata.2018.28

Bowling, D.R., B.A. Logan, K. Hufkens, D.M. Aubrecht, A.D. Richardson, S.P. Burns, W.R.L. Anderegg, P.D. Blanken, and D. Eiriksson. 2018. Limitations to winter and spring photosynthesis of a Rocky Mountain subalpine forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 252: 241-255, DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2018.01.025

Klosterman, S., E. Melaas, J. Wang, A. Martinez, S. Frederick, J. O’Keefe, D. Orwig, Z. Wang, Q. Sun, C. Schaaf, M. Friedl, and A.D. Richardson. 2018. Fine-scale perspectives on landscape phenology from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photography. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 248: 397-407, DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.10.015

Hufkens, K., D. Basler, T. Milliman, E. Melaas and A.D. Richardson. 2018. An integrated phenology modelling framework in R. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 9: 1276-1285. DOI: 10.1111/2041-210X.12970

Filippa, G., E. Cremonese, M. Migliavacca, M. Galvagno, O. Sonnentag, E. Humphreys, K. Hufkens, Y. Ryu, J. Verfaillie, U. Morra di Cella, and A. D. Richardson. 2018. NDVI derived from near-infrared-enabled digital cameras: applicability across different plant functional types. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 249: 275-285, DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.11.003


Browning, D.M., J.W. Karl, D. Morin, A.D. Richardson, and C.E. Tweedie. 2017. Phenocams bridge the gap between field and satellite observations in an arid grassland ecosystem. Remote Sensing, 9: 1071, DOI: 10.3390/rs9101071

Toda, M. and A.D. Richardson. 2017. Estimation of plant area index and phenological transition dates from digital repeat photography and radiometric approaches in a hardwood forest in the Northeastern United States. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 249: 457-466, DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.09.004

Robinson, N.P., B.W. Allred, M.O. Jones, A. Moreno, J. Kimball, D.E. Naugle, T. Erickson, and A.D. Richardson. 2017. A dynamic Landsat derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) product for the conterminous United States. Remote Sensing, 9: 863; DOI: 10.3390/rs9080863

Brown, L.A., J. Dash, B.O. Ogutu, and A.D. Richardson. 2017. On the relationship between continuous measures of canopy greenness derived using near-surface remote sensing and satellite-derived vegetation products. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 247: 280-292. DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.08.012

Klosterman, S. and A.D. Richardson. 2017. Observing spring and fall phenology in a deciduous forest with aerial drone imagery. Sensors, 17: 2852. DOI: 10.3390/s17122852

Richardson, A.D., J.F. Weltzin, and J.T. Morisette. 2017. Integrating multiscale seasonal data for resource management. EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 98, DOI:10.1029/2017EO065709.

Liu, Y., M.J. Hill, X. Zhang, Z. Wang, A.D. Richardson, K. Hufkens, G. Filippa, D.D. Baldocchi, S. Ma, J. Verfaillie, and C.B. Schaaf. 2017. Using data from Landsat, MODIS, VIIRS and PhenoCams to monitor the phenology of California oak/grass savanna and an open grassland across spatial scales. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 237-238: 311-325. DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.02.026

Baumann, M., M. Ozdogan, A.D. Richardson and V.C. Radeloff. 2017. Phenology from Landsat when data is scarce: using MODIS and Dynamic Time-warping to combine multi-year Landsat imagery to derive annual phenology curves. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 54: 72-83. DOI: 10.1016/j.jag.2016.09.005

Crall, A.W., M. Kosmala, R. Cheng, J. Brier, D. Cavalier, S. Henderson, and A.D. Richardson. 2017. Volunteer recruitment and retention in online citizen science projects using marketing strategies: Lessons from Season Spotter. Journal of Science Communication, 16: A01 1-29.

Hanson, P.J., J.S. Riggs, W.R. Nettles, J.R. Phillips, M.B. Krassovski, L.A. Hook, L. Gu, A.D. Richardson, D.M. Aubrecht, D.M. Ricciuto, J.M. Warren, and C. Barbier. 2017. Attaining whole-ecosystem warming using air and deep-soil heating methods with an elevated CO2 atmosphere. Biogeosciences, 14: 861-883. DOI: 10.5194/bg-14-861-2017.


Melaas, E.K., D. Sulla-Menashe, J.M. Gray, T.A. Black, T.H. Morin, A .D. Richardson and M.A. Friedl. 2016. Multisite analysis of land surface phenology in North American temperate and boreal deciduous forests from Landsat. Remote Sensing of Environment, 186: 452-464. DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2016.09.014

Kosmala, M., A. Crall, R. Cheng, K. Hufkens, S. Henderson and A.D. Richardson. 2016. Season Spotter: Using citizen science to validate and scale plant phenology from near-surface remote sensing. Remote Sensing, 8: 726 1-22. DOI: 10.3390/rs8090726

Filippa, G., E. Cremonese, M. Migliavacca, M. Galvagno, M. Forkel, L. Wingate, E. Tomelleri, U. Morra di Cella, and A.D. Richardson. 2016. Phenopix: An R package for image-based vegetation phenology. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 220: 141-150. DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2016.01.006

Chen, M., E.K. Melaas, J. Gray, M.A. Friedl, and A.D. Richardson. 2016. A new seasonal-deciduous spring phenology submodel in the Community Land Model 4.5: Impacts on carbon and water cycling under future climate scenarios. Global Change Biology, 22: 3675-3688. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13326

Hufkens, K., T.F. Keenan, L.B. Flanagan, R.L. Scott, C.J. Bernacchi, E. Joo, N.A. Brunsell, J. Verfaillie and A.D. Richardson. 2016. Productivity of North American grasslands is increased under future climate scenarios despite rising aridity. Nature Climate Change, 6: 710-714. DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE2942

Melaas, E.K., M.A. Friedl, and A.D. Richardson. 2016. Multiscale modeling of spring phenology across Deciduous Forests in the Eastern United States. Global Change Biology, 22: 792-805. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13122

Brown, T.B., K.R. Hultine, H. Steltzer, E.G. Denny, M.W. Denslow, J. Granados, S. Henderson, D. Moore, S. Nagai, M. San Clements, A. Sánchez-Azofeifa, O. Sonnentag, D. Tazik, and A.D. Richardson. 2016. Using phenocams to monitor our changing Earth: towards a global phenocam network. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 14: 84-93. DOI: 10.1002/fee.1222


Keenan, T.F. and A.D. Richardson. 2015. The timing of autumn senescence is affected by the time of spring phenology: implications for predictive models. Global Change Biology, 21: 2634-2641. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12890

Toomey, M., M.A. Friedl, S. Frolking, K. Hufkens, S. Klosterman, O. Sonnentag, D.D. Baldocchi, C.J. Bernacchi, S.C. Biraud, G. Bohrer, E. Brzostek, S.P. Burns, C. Coursolle, D.Y. Hollinger, H.A. Margolis, H. McCaughey, R.K. Monson, J.W. Munger, S. Pallardy, R.P. Phillips, M.S. Torn, S. Wharton, M. Zeri, and A.D. Richardson. 2015. Greenness indices from digital cameras predict the timing and seasonal dynamics of canopy-scale photosynthesis. Ecological Applications, 25: 99-115. DOI: 10.1890/14-0005.1


Klosterman, S.T., K. Hufkens, J.M. Gray, E. Melaas, O. Sonnentag, I. Lavine*, L. Mitchell*, R. Norman*, M.A. Friedl, and A.D. Richardson. 2014. Evaluating remote sensing of deciduous forest phenology at multiple spatial scales using PhenoCam imagery. Biogeosciences, 11: 4305-4320. DOI: 10.5194/bg-11-4305-2014

Petach, A.R.*, M. Toomey, D.M. Aubrecht, and A.D. Richardson. 2014. Monitoring vegetation phenology using an infrared-enabled security camera. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 195: 143-151. DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2014.05.008

Friedl, M.A., J.M. Gray, E.K. Melaas, A.D. Richardson, K. Hufkens, T.F. Keenan, A. Bailey, and J. O’Keefe. 2014. A tale of two springs: Using recent climate anomalies to characterize the sensitivity of temperate forest phenology to climate change. Environmental Research Letters, 9: Art. No. 054006. DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/9/5/054006

Keenan, T.F., J. Gray, M.A. Friedl, M. Toomey, G. Bohrer, D.Y. Hollinger, J.W. Munger, J. O’Keefe, H.P. Schmid, I. Sue Wing, B. Yang, and A.D. Richardson. 2014. Net carbon uptake has increased through warming-induced changes in temperate forest phenology. Nature Climate Change, 4: 598-604. DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE2253

Keenan, T.F., B. Darby*, E. Felts*, O. Sonnentag, M.A. Friedl, K. Hufkens, J. O’Keefe, S. Klosterman, J.W. Munger, M. Toomey, and A.D. Richardson. 2014. Tracking forest phenology and seasonal physiology using digital repeat photography: a critical assessment. Ecological Applications, 24: 1478-1489. DOI: 10.1890/13-0652.1


Richardson, A.D., S. Klosterman, and M. Toomey. 2013. Chapter 22: Near-surface sensor-derived phenology. In: M.D. Schwartz (Ed.). Phenology: An Integrative Environmental Science (2nd Edition). Springer, New York, pp. 413-430. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-6925-0_22.

Richardson, A.D., T.F. Keenan, M. Migliavacca, O. Sonnentag, Y. Ryu, and M. Toomey. 2013. Climate change, phenology, and phenological control of vegetation feedbacks to the climate system. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 169: 156-173. doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2012.09.012.

Shuai Y., C. Schaaf, X. Zhang, A. Strahler, D. Roy, J. Morisette, Z. Wang, J. Nightingale, J. Nickeson, A.D. Richardson, D. Xie, J. Wang, X. Li, K. Strabala and J.E. Davies. 2013. Daily MODIS 500m reflectance anisotropy direct broadcast (DB) products for monitoring vegetation phenology dynamics. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 10: 5997-6016. doi: 10.1080/01431161.2013.803169.

Tierney, G., B. Mitchell, A. Miller-Rushing, J. Katz, E. Denny, C. Brauer, T. Donovan, A.D. Richardson, M. Toomey, A. Kozlowski, J. Weltzin, K. Gerst, E. Sharron, O. Sonnentag, F. Dieffenbach. 2013. Phenology monitoring protocol: Northeast Temperate Network. Natural Resource Report NPS/NE Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. Available online.

Archetti, M., A.D. Richardson, J. O’Keefe, and N. Delpierre. 2013. Predicting climate change impacts on the amount and duration of autumn colors in a New England forest. PLOS One, 8: e57373. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057373.

Melaas, E.K., A.D. Richardson, M.A. Friedl, D. Dragoni, C.M. Gough, M. Herbst, L. Montagnani, and E. Moors. 2013. Using FLUXNET data to improve models of springtime vegetation activity onset in forest ecosystems. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 171-172: 46-56. doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2012.11.018.

Hanes, J., A.D. Richardson, and S. Klosterman. 2013. Chapter 12: Mesic temperate deciduous forest phenology. In: M.D. Schwartz (Ed.). Phenology: An Integrative Environmental Science (2nd Edition). Springer, New York, pp. 211-224. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-6925-0_12.


Sonnentag, O., K. Hufkens, C. Teshera-Sterne, A.M. Young, M. Friedl, B.H. Braswell, T. Milliman, J. O’Keefe, and A.D. Richardson. 2012. Digital repeat photography for phenological research in forest ecosystems. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 152: 159-177, doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2011.09.009

Hufkens, K., M.A. Friedl, T.F. Keenan, O. Sonnentag, A. Bailey, J. O’Keefe and A.D. Richardson. 2012. Ecological impacts of a widespread frost event following early spring leaf-out. Global Change Biology, 18: 2365-2377, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02712.x

Hufkens, K., M. Friedl, O. Sonnentag, B.H. Braswell, T. Milliman, and A.D. Richardson. 2012. Linking near-surface and satellite remote sensing measurements of deciduous broadleaf forest phenology. Remote Sensing of Environment, 117: 307-321, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2011.10.006.

Elmore, A.J, S.M. Guinn, B.J. Minsley, and A.D. Richardson. 2012. Landscape controls on the timing of spring, autumn, and growing season length in mid-Atlantic forests. Global Change Biology, 18: 656-674, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02521.x.

Migliavacca, M., O. Sonnentag, T.F. Keenan, A. Cescatti, J. O’Keefe and A.D. Richardson. 2012. On the uncertainty of phenological responses to climate change and its implication for terrestrial biosphere models. Biogeosciences, 9: 2063-2083, doi: 10.5194/bg-9-2063-2012

Richardson, A.D., R.S. Anderson, M.A. Arain, A.G. Barr, G. Bohrer, G. Chen, J.M. Chen, P. Ciais, K.J. Davis, A.R. Desai, M.C. Dietze, D. Dragoni, S.R. Garrity, C.M. Gough, R. Grant, D.Y. Hollinger, H.A. Margolis, H. McCaughey, M. Migliavacca, R.K. Monson, J.W. Munger, B. Poulter, B.M. Raczka, D.M. Ricciuto, A.K. Sahoo, K. Schaefer, H. Tian, R. Vargas, H. Verbeeck, J. Xiao, and Y. Xue. 2012. Terrestrial biosphere models need better representation of vegetation phenology: Results from the North American Carbon Program site synthesis. Global Change Biology, 18: 566-584, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02562.x


Migliavacca, M., M. Galvagno, E. Cremonese, M. Rossini, M. Meroni1, O. Sonnentag, S. Cogliati, G. Manca, F. Diotri, L. Busetto, A. Cescatti, R. Colombo, F. Fava, U. Morra di Cella, E. Pari, C. Siniscalco, and A.D. Richardson. 2011. Using digital repeat photography and eddy covariance data to model grassland phenology and photosynthetic CO2 uptake. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 151: 1325-1337, doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2011.05.012


Richardson, A.D., T.A. Black, P. Ciais, N. Delbart, M.A. Friedl, N. Gobron, D.Y. Hollinger, W.L. Kutsch, B. Longdoz, S. Luyssaert, M. Migliavacca, L. Montagnani, J.W. Munger, E. Moors, S. Piao, C. Rebmann, M. Reichs tein, N. Saigusa, E. Tomelleri, R. Vargas, and A. Varlagin. 2010. Influence of spring and autumn phenological transitions on forest ecosystem productivity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B, 365: 3227-3246. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2010.0102


Jacobs, N., W. Burgin, N. Fridrich, A. Abrams, K. Miskell, B.H. Braswell, A.D. Richardson and R. Pless. 2009. The global network of outdoor webcams: properties and applications. Proceedings ACM GIS '09 (November 4-6, 2009. Seattle, WA, USA), 111-120.

Richardson, A.D., B.H. Braswell, D.Y. Hollinger, J.P. Jenkins and S.V. Ollinger. 2009. Near-surface remote sensing of spatial and temporal variation in canopy phenology. Ecological Applications, 19(6): 1417-1428.

Morisette, J.T., A.D. Richardson, A.K. Knapp, J.I. Fisher, E.A. Graham, J. Abatzoglou, B.E. Wilson, D.D. Breshears, G.M. Henebry, J.M. Hanes, and L. Liang. 2009. Tracking the rhythm of the seasons in the face of global change: phenological research in the 21st Century. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 7: 253-260, doi: 10.1890/070217

White, M.A., K.M. de Beurs, K. Didan, D.W. Inouye, A.D. Richardson, O.P. Jensen, J. O’Keefe, G. Zhang, R.R. Nemani, W.J.D. van Leeuwen, J.F. Brown, A. de Wit, M. Schaepman, X. Lin, M. Dettinger, A.S. Bailey, J. Kimball, M.D. Schwartz, D.D. Baldocchi, J.T. Lee, and W.K. Lauenroth. 2009. Intercomparison, interpretation, and assessment of spring phenology in North America estimated from remote sensing for 1982 to 2006. Global Change Biology, 15: 2335-2359, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.01910.x

Richardson, A.D., D.Y. Hollinger, D.B. Dail, J.T. Lee, J.W. Munger, J. O'Keefe. 2009. Influence of spring phenology on seasonal and annual carbon balance in two contrasting New England forests. Tree Physiology, 29:321-331, doi:10.1093/treephys/tpn040.

Richardson, A.D. and J. O’Keefe. 2009. Phenological differences between understory and overstory: A case study using the long-term Harvard Forest records. In: A. Noormets, ed. Phenology of Ecosystem Processes. Springer Science + Business, New York. pp. 87-117.

Hadley, J.L., J. O’Keefe, J.W. Munger, D.Y. Hollinger and A.D. Richardson. 2009. Phenology of forest-atmosphere carbon exchange for deciduous and coniferous forests in southern and northern New England: Variation with latitude and landscape position. In: A. Noormets, ed. Phenology of Ecosystem Processes. Springer Science + Business, New York. pp. 119-141.


Wingate, L., A.D. Richardson, J.F. Weltzin, K.N. Nasahara, J. Grace. 2008. Keeping an eye on the carbon balance: linking canopy development and net ecosystem exchange using a webcam. FluxLetter (The Newsletter of FLUXNET) 1(2): 14-17.


Richardson, A.D., J.P. Jenkins, B.H. Braswell, D.Y. Hollinger, S.V. Ollinger, and M.-L. Smith. Use of digital webcam images to track spring green-up in a deciduous broadleaf forest. Oecologia, doi10.1007/s00442-006-0657-z, 2007.

Fisher, J.I., A.D. Richardson, and J.F. Mustard. 2007. Phenology model from surface meteorology does not capture satellite-based greenup estimations. Global Change Biology, 13: 707-721.


Richardson, A.D., A.S. Bailey, E.G. Denny, C.W. Martin, and J. O’Keefe. 2006. Phenology of a northern hardwood forest canopy. Global Change Biology, 12: 1174-1188.